How to the oxford school education class 6 English solutions.

Introduction

New Oxford Modern English (NOME) is a complete English course and is currently used all over Pakistan, in the Middle East, and in other South Asian countries.
It is hoped that this new edition will satisfy the demands of pupils, teachers, and parents—not an easy task, by any means—and that the teaching and learning of English will become an enjoyable and worthwhile experience for the user.
For pupils, we have produced books and materials to capture the imagination and make lessons a pleasure rather than an imposition. The core materials—the student books and workbooks—are full of lively reading passages, attractive illustrations, and interesting, thought-provoking exercises. The books have been graded and structured in such a way that much self-learning can be done.
For teachers, the core materials will make their task of teaching English much easier. We hope that teachers will take the time to go through this Guide in detail. It will explain why things are done in a particular way and how best to use the core materials. The Teaching Guide contains detailed notes and information about each page of the student book and workbook, suggestions for various activities in class, lists of structures and vocabulary, and much more.
Parents will appreciate that their children are being given the opportunity to learn English using the best tools available. Learning English, however, should not be confined solely to the classroom. Parents may take an active part in helping their children to learn by providing encouragement and a peaceful and attractive environment at home. Hopefully, parents will provide their children with good supplementary books and magazines to read, discuss school work, and speak in English whenever possible.

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  1. Components of the course
    The Student Books
    The Student Books provide a base or springboard from which to operate. The books are carefully graded and structured. By stages, they introduce the pupil to the letters of the alphabet, simple words, sentences, paragraphs, stories, poems, writing of all kinds (descriptive, dramatic, narrative), and a whole range of ideas.
    The Student Books present the pupil with graded material incorporating reading matter followed by
    exercises. The reading scheme has been especially designed so that a number of different approaches are utilized. The emphasis in the early Student Books is on phonics, although some words, due to the very nature of English, fall into the ‘whole word’ or ‘look-and-say’ category.
    Of the various methods of teaching reading, it has been shown that a blend of phonics and the ‘look-and say’ method is the most satisfactory. Some words in English lend themselves to the phonic approach and can be broken up into their constituent parts. We can do this by pronouncing the individual phonic sounds that make up the whole word. Such words are usually simple, single-syllabic words, such as cat, hit, let, and bun. Many words cannot be broken up into their constituent parts by applying phonic rules. For example, words such as the, is, this, and of must be learnt as ‘look-and-say’ words. Trying to break such words up into separate phonic sounds will only lead to confusion.

Many such words are used frequently in English and are important because not many sentences can be
constructed without using some of them! The introduction of such words, then, cannot be left till a later
stage when the pupil arrives at the appropriate phonic level. They must be introduced earlier on as ‘lookand-say’ words. An approach that is strictly and exclusively phonic tends to lead to stilted and forced
language. In addition, such an exclusive approach may confuse the pupil when he/she is faced with words
that do not conform to a pattern that has been introduced and learnt. For example, if the pupil is taught
that the letter c produces the sound ‘kuh’ (cat, cub), what is he/she then going to make of the words city
and ice? The pupil cannot apply any previously learnt ‘rules’ in order to decipher these new words or
tackle reading material independent of the teacher’s assistance. This is why, in the early student books,
there is a blend of two approaches: phonic and ‘look-and-say’.
In Student Book Primer A, considerable emphasis has been placed on oral activities before reading. This
is a direct attempt to encourage teachers to spend more time ‘using the language actively’. Generally, too
much time is devoted to silent (reading and writing) activities in class—meaning and understanding can
only come through activity and practical usage, especially in the early years.
In Primer B, the second Student Book, the pupils are introduced to many new words, using both phonics
and ‘look-and-say’. The pupils are also introduced to whole sentences which incorporate controlled
structures.
From Student Book 1 on wards, the books contain language which again is controlled; the structures are
graded and the books contain appropriate vocabulary, stories, and poems, followed by varied exercises to
develop all the necessary skills.
Speaking and Listening before Reading
Reading is a complicated activity requiring considerable skills. It is essential that before pupils begin to
learn how to read, they gain as much facility as possible in the skill of speaking. They must also be given
the opportunity to listen to the words of the language being spoken. The pupil must first learn that the
object with which he/she writes is called a pen or pencil, the object he/she throws up in the air is a ball,
and when he/she is moving forward quickly he/she is running. The pupil may be familiar with these words
in the mother tongue, but not in English. First, the learner of English must familiarize himself/herself with
the words of the language through practical activities and concrete examples. He/she must get used to a
whole new vocabulary, new structures, and an entirely different way of pronouncing words.
In many schools all over the country, teachers begin the teaching of English by introducing reading and
writing (the alphabet) before they have given the pupils a chance to explore and acquire some skill in
using the spoken language. Pupils must be given this opportunity if they are to make some sense of what
they are doing. By making these exercises a part of the Student Book, it is hoped that teachers will realize
how important it is for pupils to practice speaking before learning to read. (For a more detailed account of
pre-reading activities, please see the relevant chapter later in this Guide.)
The textual matter and exercises in the Student Books offer much scope for oral work, and it is
recommended that pupils be given every opportunity to discuss the text and the pictures, and be
encouraged to read aloud to improve their pronunciation.
The Workbooks
The Workbooks are closely related to the Student Books. The oral and reading exercises in the Student
Books should be followed immediately afterwards by oral and written exercises in the Workbook. Each
page of the Student Book consists of oral work followed by some reading. Similarly, each page of the
Workbook entails oral work followed by some kind of written work.
In the Primers, much of the written work consists of writing letters and words. Naturally, this means
that pupils also have to read. But remember, writing is an even more complicated activity than reading.

It involves eye-and-hand coordination, motor control, and much more. Because pupils find writing a
laborious activity, the exercises that are introduced in the Workbook are varied. The pupils are not
expected to write letters and words all the time, but have been given ample scope to draw, colour, match,
copy, and join lines and boxes. Further writing activities based on the exercises in the Student Book and
Workbook will greatly benefit the pupils and help to develop their reading and writing skills. Suggestions
for such activities are contained in the detailed notes, but it is up to the teacher to decide whether or not
such additional work is necessary.
The Workbooks which correspond to the later Student Books contain exercises which are closely related
to the topic(s) covered in the Student Books. In some instances, however, a new topic (concerning the
use of special vocabulary, or structure, or activity) is introduced in order to cover as much ground as
possible. Full instructions are given, with examples, so that the teacher or pupil should have little difficulty
in understanding what has to be done.
Supplementary Learning Materials
In the early stages, it is essential that the teacher develops, produces, and makes a collection of all kinds
of supplementary materials in order to aid learning. The books in the series can only serve as a base
from which to work, and it is the teacher’s job to reinforce this work with appropriate exercises, materials,
ideas, worksheets, games, and above all, efforts to try and create the proper atmosphere and environment
in which real progress can be made. Supplementary materials include charts, worksheets, flash cards
(words, pictures, sentences), matching cards, games, and various pieces of apparatus involving the
manipulation of letters or words in order to help pupils learn how to spell or how to use a structure. All
these items will help pupils to revise and reinforce what has been learnt in the student books. They offer
great scope for the teacher to approach certain lessons from an entirely different angle and will help to
occupy the pupils’ time constructively. Slow learners as well as those who are quicker can benefit greatly
from using these materials.
In the later stages, the use of additional learning materials may not be felt to be so necessary for every
pupil in the class. However, there will be instances when you will find that certain pupils need extra help
or additional practice in order to understand a particular lesson. It is here that supplementary learning
materials can be most useful. Many learning materials and games are already available. It is hoped that
some materials may be developed as part of this learning package. Many of the materials can easily be
made, quite inexpensively, by teachers themselves. For a list of materials and how to make and use them
in class, please see the Teaching Guide for Primers A and B.
In addition to the above-mentioned supplementary materials, rhymes, poems, and songs are an important
part of speech and ear training. The detailed notes for Primers A and B suggest where you might
introduce various rhymes during the course of the year. Teachers should ask the pupils to listen to the
rhymes and teach them the words so that the rhymes can be learnt and repeated. Obviously, learning
these rhymes will take time, but this will be time well spent.

  1. Teaching English
    The Pupils
    Before you start using the books and materials of this English course, here are some important points to
    consider about each of your pupils.
    • What is the background of the pupil?
    • Is English spoken at home on a regular basis?
    • Is the pupil a second-generation learner? (Have the parents received some kind of education?)

Does the pupil come from a home where books and magazines are available and where the other members of the family read?
• Does the pupil come from a home where there are educational toys, a radio, TV, internet access, newspapers?
• Does the pupil have any difficulty related to sight, speech, or hearing?
These are only some of the questions you might ask about your pupils. Your answers will determine where
you have to start, what pace to go at, and what work must be done in order to get the best out of your
pupils. Here are some constructive steps you can take in order to teach English more effectively at the
primary level.
Using the Teaching Guide
This course is a complete learning package and the intention of this guide is to help you to use the
package effectively. There is a Teaching Guide for each level and each will provide many ideas that can
be used and developed throughout the course. Please be sure to read the detailed notes and teaching
suggestions in the guide.
Using the Student Books and Workbooks
The books have been especially designed for pupils from a Pakistani background. They try to bridge, or
to some extent, narrow the gap between complete beginners, those whose mother tongue is not English
and who do not speak any English at home, and those whose home environment involves the use of a
considerable amount of English. As not all pupils learn at the same speed, and some topics or structures
are more difficult to grasp than others, it may be necessary for the teacher to backtrack, revise, spend a
longer time over certain stages, or even skip out or race through certain exercises where necessary. The
teacher should feel free to adapt and amend and not stick too closely to all the suggestions made in this
guide, if that is going to restrict his/her teaching in any way. For example, if time is limited, the first set
of comprehension questions in most exercises may be answered orally—only selected questions may be
given for written work.
Using Materials
Use as many materials as possible. If your pupils do not have reading and writing materials at home, you
should try to provide them in class. As mentioned above, student books are useful tools but they are not
the only materials you should use. Supplementary reading materials, charts, wall displays utilizing pupils’
written work and drawings, flash cards of various kinds, and games all support the learning process.
By using and displaying materials, your pupils will have plenty to look at, think about, and talk about. Fast
learners, with the help of different materials, will reinforce what they have learnt, and slow learners will
have the opportunity to approach the same topic from a different angle.
Do create a small library of supplementary reading materials within the classroom. The textual matter in
the Student Book is limited; it is not sufficient to develop the habit and love of reading.
Planning
With careful planning, you can vary your lessons, allocate sufficient time to every aspect of learning
English, and introduce new and interesting ideas and activities which will make your classes lively and
interesting. The Teaching Guide will prove an invaluable tool in this process. Sample lesson plans have
also been included at the end of each unit in each guide. It is not necessary to follow them rigidly. Vary
them for interest according to your requirements.

Activity
Make sure that your lessons are active. Varied activities will help to generate enthusiasm and enjoyment in
the classroom. Boredom will not be an issue if you introduce varied, interesting activities.
Dynamism
Make sure that all your lessons are dynamic. It is only if you are enthusiastic and dynamic that you can
inspire your pupils to put in their best efforts, work hard, and learn something. If you are dull and sound
bored by the whole process, your lack of enthusiasm will transfer to the pupils. Their lack of enthusiasm
will make your task more tedious.
Atmosphere
Try to create an atmosphere in class that is conducive to learning. This may be done on two levels—the
physical and the psychological. To improve the physical atmosphere, make sure your classroom is an
interesting place in which to be. Desks arranged in rows and nothing but bare walls will not help. Make
your classroom exciting and attractive, full of interesting things.
On the psychological level, try to create an atmosphere in which pupils are not fearful or intimidated. If
the work is interesting and stimulating and the atmosphere is relaxed and peaceful, much more can be
accomplished.
Speaking in English
Make sure you use English at all times in the English lesson. Do not use the pupils’ mother tongue
to explain meanings or to give instructions. Understanding will only come through constant and open
dialogue in the classroom, between the teacher and the pupils. Use English naturally and whenever
possible, and expect the pupils to use it too. You will be surprised how quickly and easily incidental
language is picked up by the pupils.

  1. Pre-reading
    Time spent on pre-reading activities will greatly benefit the potential reader, so do not rush this stage.
    The exercises and suggestions here should be followed in the first few weeks of school and should be
    continued with even after work in the student book has begun.
    Listening and Speaking skills
    These skills relate directly to the pupil’s ability to listen to, decode, and understand words and sentences
    spoken in English, and the ability to repeat or utter words, phrases, and sentences in a meaningful and
    clear manner.
    Points to consider:
    • Can the pupil hear sounds properly? (Is his/her hearing impaired in any way?)
    • Can the pupil tell from which source a particular sound is emanating? (Show the pupil pictures—a horn, a bell,
    a drum—and listen to a recording of these sounds.)
    • Can the pupil distinguish between one sound and another heard at the same time? (Clapping and instrumental
    music; baby crying and person singing; a number of musical instruments being played at the same time.)
    • Can the pupil distinguish between loud and soft sounds?
    • Can the pupil understand simple instructions?

Can the pupil repeat simple words, phrases, rhymes?
• Can the pupil repeat simple stories in his/her own words?
• Does the pupil come from a background where English is spoken frequently?
You can organize activities in class which will greatly help the pupils not only to hear sounds, but to listen
to sounds with concentration and understanding. For such exercises, a CD player will prove useful.
Here are some activities to develop listening and speaking skills.

  1. Talk about objects and events, naturally and as often as possible.
  2. Give the pupils the opportunity to speak English whenever possible. Listen attentively to what they
    have to say and encourage them to speak by asking questions.
  3. Use English all the time; try not to use the mother tongue. If the pupil is from a non English-speaking
    background, he/she will need to hear English spoken quite often.
  4. Give clear instructions at all times; pronounce all your words properly (to the best of your ability).
  5. Tell stories, recite poems, sing songs, and get the pupils to learn these and repeat them. Encourage
    the pupils to learn some tongue-twisters. (Very often pupils repeat or recite rhymes and poems at the
    top of their voice; there is no need for this! Teach them to speak and sing in a natural way.)
  6. Play various games which involve the use of listening or speaking skills. (‘I-spy’, finding rhyming
    words, making up stories, guessing games, miming and describing actions, etc.)
  7. Use as above to play music and songs to the pupils.
  8. Use as above to record and play back the pupils’ own voices.
  9. Provide pictures and books for pupils to look at so that these can act as a stimulus for conversation.
    English is spoken all over the world so there are many different accents. It is not essential that English
    should be spoken in one particular accent. As long as the speaker’s utterances are easily understood by
    anyone listening, the ‘accent’ is not important. Obviously care must be taken to pronounce words in the
    correct way, otherwise the meaning may not be clear. For example, there is a considerable difference in
    the meaning of the words cheap, chip, and ship. The use of ch for sh, or a long vowel sound for a short
    one, may cause confusion, unless the context is absolutely clear.

There are many other confusing pairs of words. Concentrate on the clear pronunciation of all consonants,
consonant blends, and vowel sounds. Distinguish especially between long vowel sounds and short ones.
When in doubt about the proper pronunciation of a word, consult a good dictionary. A good dictionary will
also tell you where to put the stress or accent in a word.

Visual Skills
This skill relates directly to the pupil’s ability to recognize, decode, and understand words and sentences
written in English.
Points to consider:
• Can the pupil see properly? (Is his/her sight impaired in any way?)
• Can the pupil distinguish between one colour and another?
• Can the pupil already read letters/words in another language?
• Can the pupil recognize writing (as opposed to pictures)?
• Does the pupil come from a home in which books, magazines, and other reading/picture materials are
available?
• Can the pupil recognize and understand simple visual symbols? (e.g. an arrow, indicating direction.)
Prior to reading, it is essential that pupils are given the opportunity to develop certain visual skills which
will make the task of ‘real reading’ much simpler for them later on.
Bare classroom walls will in no way help the pupils to develop visual skills! Make sure your classroom
walls are always covered in interesting pictures, words, and sentences. Replace the materials often, in
order to maintain the pupils’ interest.
Visual skills consist of matching, sorting, orientation, discrimination, sequencing, completion, and recall.
Refer to the Teaching Guide for Primers A and B for further details.
Motor Skills
These skills relate directly to the pupil’s ability to combine sight and muscular control in order to use a
pencil or other implement to draw or write words and sentences accurately.
Points to consider:
• Does the pupil have any physical defect which makes writing difficult?
• Does the pupil come from a home where others write, and where writing materials (pens, pencils, colours,
paper) are readily available?
• Is the pupil more comfortable using the right hand or left hand when writing (or drawing, or doing other tasks)?
• Can the pupil write any words in another language?
There are many activities that can greatly help hand-eye coordination. Some of these include the threading
of beads, colouring, drawing, tracing, drawing around shapes (or templates), cutting out shapes or
pictures with a pair of scissors, playing games (throwing dice, moving counters, holding cards, rolling
marbles, using tiddlywinks, etc.), pasting pictures in a scrapbook, doing jigsaw puzzles, using a needle
and thread to make samplers (sewing), copying pictures, painting, completing dot-to-dot pictures, doing
mazes, constructing simple structures from a variety of materials (card, paper, cotton reels, sticks, string,
matchboxes, etc.), and modelling with clay or play dough.
Remember that before the pupil begins to write letters and words, he/she should have heard the word
spoken, said the word and used it in a meaningful way in a sentence, and read the word, either on its own
or in a sentence. At the pre-reading stage, however, activities may incorporate the use of many skills at
one time.
Many of the motor-skill activities are contained in the Workbook, but due to certain constraints (mainly
of space available) they have been limited. Teachers should provide the pupils with ample opportunity
to develop these skills even after work in the student book has been started. Use lots of craft activities
to develop hand-and-eye coordination. Remember that all the skills described above can be developed
across the curriculum: do not confine the use of English to the English period alone!

  1. Reading
    The early preparation for reading has already been outlined in the chapter entitled Pre-reading.
    In order to become a reader, the pupil must be aware of shapes, be able to recall stories and poems, and have a considerably wide vocabulary in English. Above all, the pupil must be sufficiently motivated and must want to read. Forcing someone to read, especially when the person is not ready to read or finds the task difficult, may only put off the potential reader.
    The potential reader must be given opportunities to develop pre-reading skills and must be encouraged
    to read. Encouragement may be given in a number of ways. First, provide the pupil with books to read.
    These may be picture books with very few or no words in them. If you provide the pupils with books and read stories to them, you will show them that books are useful and interesting, and that they are worth reading.
    Build up a collection of books in the classroom. Some books may disappear or be spoilt, but if they
    do not exist in the first place, the pupils will never learn how to use them or handle them with care.
    Remember that reading with fluency, accuracy, enjoyment, and understanding cannot be achieved by
    reading one student book. The skill of reading and an interest in reading can only be developed properly by allowing the reader to read and enjoy a number of books.
  2. Writing
    Writing is a laborious activity for the pupil; it is not a natural activity. Writing involves many skills: the pupil.
  3. must first be able to recognize that certain shapes form letters, and that these letters represent particular sounds; when the letters are put together they form words, pronounced in a particular way; these words have meaning.
    Only when the pupil has made some headway in oral work and in reading should he/she be encouraged
    to write. ‘Writing’, prior to this stage, should involve the use of implements to draw, co-lour, scribble, make shapes, and copy in order to develop fine motor skills and hand-eye coordination.
    Writing requires strong motivation and a great deal of practice on the part of the pupil. So, do not expect too much at first. The teacher should try to make the activity as exciting and attractive as possible, and offer lots of encouragement. The writing of endless lists of words will not help to enthuse the pupils or make them want to write more than is absolutely necessary. Varied activities and tasks, which include drawing as well as writing, should help to motivate the pupils.
    Give pupils the opportunity and encouragement to try and write creatively. Quite often, exercises based
    on work in the Student Books do not allow much scope for creativity or imagination. In many instances,
    however, this is possible if you use your own judgement and good sense to alter, adapt, or improve on
    exercises that have been set. Creative writing does not mean that pupils should abandon the rules of
    writing correct English. Creativity can come from the use of original ideas put in a novel way, but which
    also observe all the prescribed rules of good grammar and syntax.
    Remember that pupils like to have their work appreciated and admired. Ensure that the work of each
    pupil, at some stage during the year, is displayed for all to see. If a pupil produces a particularly good
    piece of writing, correct it, get the pupil to rewrite it neatly, and perhaps illustrate it. You can then mount
    it and display it on a board in the classroom. Change the works on displays regularly so that the display
    board becomes a constant source of attraction and inspiration.
    Please consult the guides for the levels below and above this one. They may contain ideas and
    suggestions that could be adapted and used in preparation of lesson plans for the units at this level.

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