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PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT

Introduction
The term curriculum derives from the Latin word ‘curer’ which means a kind of route which the learner-travels. All the activities going on the school or outside of the school is called curriculum. It is basic to the-intellectual, physical, moral and emotional development of the child.

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Curriculum·Curriculum comprises all the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is-carried on in groups or individually inside or outside of the school. -Kerr·
Curriculum is the totality of experiences that pupils receive through the manifold activities that groin the school, in the classroom, library, laboratory, workshop, playground and in the numerous-informal contacts between the teachers and pupils.-The Secondary Education Commission (1952-1953)·
Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the Artist (Teacher), to mold his/her materials (Students),according to his/her ideals (objectives) in his/her studio (College/ School).

While you are studying about curriculum development and its need and importance you shouldbe aware of the principles of curriculum development. This is because these principles help youwhen you yourself are up to the task of curriculum development. From B.Ed. point of view thistopic comes in the study of pedagogy of various subjects and under subject Knowledge andcurriculum. You might also consider visit in the article on Bases of curriculum.

In curriculum development, we think about the type of learning experiences to be given to achild at various age and grade levels

It needs a systematic and sequential planning to widen the sphere of the learning experience ateach level by keeping in view the principles of integration and correlation.

Major Defects in the Present Curriculum

·Examination oriented
·Text Book based examinations
·Emphasis on theory not practical
·Heavy syllabus
·Rote learning is encouraged
·Not to life oriented
·Not helpful to vocation
·Not developing the whole personality

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The curriculum is usually concerned with two questions

·What should we teach? What should be the content of education?
·How should we organize it and how should we teach?

To answer these questions we should now discuss the principles of curriculum development.

  1. Suitability to the age and mental level of the children

What is to be given to the children in the form of learning experiences at a particular age andgrade level should suit their age and mental development

The capacity for understanding, how children grow with age. The content of the study in anysubject should be formed to suit their mental ability

  1. According to the specific interests of students

Children will be able to learn better in fields where they have special tastes and inclination of the mind.

It is also found that at different stages of age groups, children have different interest patterns.

Interests of children also change according to circumstances and situations.

Therefore learning experiences should be designed to suit the interests and tastes of the agegroup of students.

  1. The curriculum should be environmentally centered
    The content of the learning experiences for children should be linked with the needs of thesituation in which they live.

For example, children from rural areas can understand and grasp easily the information which isdirectly concerned with their experiences in their own rural environment.
The same thing applies to children in the various environment like urban areas, hilly areas etc

  1. The principle of the comprehensive curriculum

The curriculum must have necessary details. List of topics to be covered does not solve thepurpose.Both teachers and students should know clearly what is expected of them, what is the beginningand what is the end of the topic for the particular class.Material, aids, activities, life situations etc. should be listed in the curriculum

  1. Principle of co-relationThe curriculum should be such that all the subjects are correlated with each other.While designing the curriculum, it must be kept in mind that the subject matter of varioussubjects has some relation to each other so that they help the child eventually.6. The principle of practical workChildren are very active by nature.They like new things and can learn more by doing or by activity method.Therefore curriculum should be designed in such a way that it provides maximum opportunity tothe child for practical work with the help of concrete things.7. Principle of flexibilityInstead of being rigid curriculum should show the sign of flexibility.The organization of the curriculum should be on the basis of individual differences as every childis different from the other.Apart from this conditions of society go on changing, therefore, the curriculum must be flexibleenough to address the needs as aspirations of the society.8. Principle of forward-lookingThis principle asks for the inclusion of those topics, content and learning experiences that mayprove helpful to the students in leading their future life in a proper way.9. The principle of consultation with teachersTeachers play a key role in the implementation of the school curriculum of any grade or stage.It is therefore quite essential to seek the proper involvement of the teachers in the constructionand development of school curriculum
  2. The principle of joint venture-It is necessarily a joint venture where various experts are involved like educational-psychologists, educational technologists, curriculum specialists, evaluation specialists, teachers,subject matter experts etc.11. The principle of availability of time and other resources-curriculum is the means to realize the outcomes of the educational objectives of the school.Implementation of curriculum is equally important as curriculum construction. While developing-curriculum experts should also keep its implementation in mind. They should be aware of the-conditions of the schools and possible availability of time and resources available.12. Principle of Balance / Integration (Child = Community) It is also called principle of Integration. The curriculum should integrate: a) Cognitive, effective and psycho-motor objectives and abilities b) Knowledge and experience c) Objectives and content d) Child’s activity and needs with the society needs and activity. It should be related to the social environment of the students. Here the equal/ balance-importance should be given to the need of the Child and need of the Community. 13. Principle of Need Curriculum helps in fulfilling the various needs of the learner. Each learner has his needs which-are generally related to physical, emotional and social development. A well planned curriculum-provides all such opportunities through many fold activities which satisfies the need of the-learner. It should not be merely the academic but it should include all other equally important-activities too.14. Principle of Utility-one of the purposes of education is to prepare the child for living and learning. This is the most-important consideration, so that the child can live a fruitful and self-fulfilling life. Curriculum-should provide rich experiences, both academic and social to the students. The content, activities and experience of the curriculum at a particular stage / grade are useful to the learner for the-further/higher studies. Conclusion The curriculum is the totality of experiences that the child gains through the multifarious-activities in the school. The review of the present curriculum is reveal that it is subject oriented,examination ridden, not in conformity with the aims and objective of the teaching science, rigid-and outfits the different age group. So, it is imperative that the present curriculum should be-reorganized in the light of the principles mentioned above.

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